Courtesy Mashable, this concept of an artificial gravity space station is considered for 2025.


Artificial Gravity, Teleportation, and Space Program was first written for publication in April, 2015. The article was to address some of the most complex areas of space travel NASA is yet to face. Since then, what this writer considered concepts to be in their infancy has advanced, dramatically. 

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Courtesy Artificial Gravity, this experimental concept is being considered.

Tempus fugit! Time flies, as the old Latin term applies! Mankind, at war has moved from spears, arrows and shields to guided missiles, nukes and lasers in less than five thousand years? We understood nothing of the sun, earth and sky until now now in the same amount of time?

Now, we have incredible evidence in history, yet we still contemplate the sky and hang onto old concepts until it becomes almost too obvious we must make a major change to move forward? Well, problematic or not, the time has come to invent an efficient method of artificial gravity for humans in space for the space program to blossom and grow.


From the beginnings of the space programs of both the United States and then the Union of the Soviet Socialist Republic (USSR-Soviet Union-Russia) from 1957 onward, it was a ‘space race’. The ‘cold war’ between the two super powers ended in late 1991. On April 13, 1961, the Soviet Union’s cosmonaut, Yuri Gagarin became the first human to be launched into space. Just 23 days later on May 5, 1961, Alan Shepard became the first American launched into space from Cape Canaveral, Florida, USA.

The continued exploits of both the United States and Russia continued with such programs as the Mercury, Friendship, Vostok, Gemini, Soyuz, and Apollo in the 1960’s. In December of 1968 Apollo 8 successfully orbited the moon and returned, safely. The Apollo 11 mission successfully landed astronauts on the moon on July 20, 1969. There were six missions with soft landings on the moon ending in August 22, 1976. The next soft landing on the moon was not until December of 2013 and that was robotic. In the 1990’s the Chinese entered manned space programs with the Shenzhou missions.


Since then, the space programs of various nations have moved forward in both human and robotic exploration. Ultimately, both nations, who competed for years would have to realize without each other to collaborate, their programs would be compromised. What if something tragic would happen while in orbit of earth or, perish forbid, on reentry to home? Those concerns did come from unfortunate and tragic occurrences that happened both on earth and reentry from missions by both countries over the years.

After manned moon landings, sights were set for the next step: Mars. Up until now, man enduring weightless environments had only been for short periods of time. No one then knew of how the human body would stand up to a continuous weightless environment over longer periods. Hence, programs were developed to research not only a weightless state for man, it was also for other animal and plant life from microbial to existing biological forms.


The age began where orbiting space stations were constructed beginning with the Soviet Salyut 1, launched April 19, 1971. Soon to follow was the United States Skylab and Soviet Almaz stations, which were really not much more than orbiting “tin cans” with a minimum complement humans and testing equipment. Although, short lived, these missions led to the space station we know today as ISS (International Space Station) and the Chinese Tiangong-1.

The Russian (originally Soviet) MIR space station was the largest in orbit until its decay and ultimate return from space in 2001. To be able to supply the ISS, as well as, launch satellites into orbit or space, the United States developed the shuttle program. Soyuz is used to this day to transport astronauts to and from the ISS orbiting platform. Now, with the advent of private space enterprises and the cessation of the NASA shuttle program, there are now robotic shipments arriving to ISS for the near future.


The nations engaged in the continued efforts in space exploration and continued habitation are incredible, to say the least. To date, we have reached a plateau in scientific research. It is time for a demonstrative change in how we conduct the future of space exploration.
The time has come to make this statement. Anti-gravity applications are in order.

“Please consider we are sending astronauts to accommodate conditions existing in space, not accommodating space for the astronauts. Please start adapting environments on our space vehicles to create a more earth-like environment for them. We must now invent the methods by which we can travel to the planets, and ultimately, the stars. Even before the upcoming Mars mission; if we do not, we are sentencing the colonizers with a good possibility of early death.”

Pioneers of every age of man have been travelers and explorers. Most met with doom until they achieved their goals. From the smallest of gains to the largest of them, there was no change until now. We must overcome the artificial gravity issue to add to the tools our explorers can use to maximize their success potential.


Recent developments of improved rocketry by private concerns states its magnetic, plasma rocket engine (VASIMR) could transport astronauts to Mars in 39 days instead of 6 months, we are still faced with the same problem of longer missions to outer planets and asteroids. And, electrical power requirements are beyond what can be produced, at this time. This is why we should take the time to construct a craft with an earth-like gravity environment. Further comment on this is written below.

Artificial Gravity

Why has it not yet been invented and applied to date? Let’s take a look at some of the issues at hand. Of course, it is the overall expense of completing this project. Please read further to learn more.

Centripetal Force

One of the major problems here is the size of the craft. To create enough rotation to simulate a one gravity environment would require a habitat of over 300 feet so the craft would be huge. A smaller craft size would require a much more rapid rotation, which could actually be harder on astronauts than weightless environment because the ‘gravity’ differentials from head to toe would vary, greatly.

Here, rapidly spinning ‘rings’ would be incorporated to create this form of artificial gravity.

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Courtesy Trade Science, this diagram shows the effects of artificial gravity of centripetal force where rotation around a central point.

Serious thought has been given to creating mini-centrifuges on the craft to simulate temporary reprieves from enduring weightless flight; however, the problems again arise of uneven gravity on different parts of the human body. So far, the ‘spinning beds’ are the best contrived and utilized. Astronauts spend over 20 percent of their time exercising to fight the effects of a weightless environment instead of using this for quality research in an earth-friendly environment! What a waste of time, energy and expense, isn’t it?

Centrifugal Force

Centrifugal Force is where artificial gravity is created from a central point. The occupants would traverse a floor that circles around the central point.

Thus, artificial gravity is created where the craft itself would spin.

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Courtesy Chegg, this diagram shows artificial gravity from a central point where the floor is circular. It is known as centrifugal force.

The diagram above shows how centrifugal force works as artificial gravity.

Artificial Gravity From Direct Acceleration

Another form of artificial gravity may be formed due to direct craft acceleration.

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Courtesy Chegg, this diagram shows the effects of artificial gravity due to acceleration.

In this case, a craft accelerating towards its destination would be utilized to create artificial gravity. As the craft approaches the destination, it would actually turn around to create deceleration. This would also create an artificial gravity environment for the occupants.

Economic Implications

The next major hurdle to overcome is the expense of lifting incredible amounts of material into orbit to create a craft that could be large enough to simulate an earth-like environment while travelling in orbit, to Mars, asteroids, or even other planets in our solar system. Of course, until we create a FTL (faster-than-light) or ‘warp/inter-dimensional’ forms of propulsion, travelling to other star systems is out of the question.

Now, here is my contention to this problematic expense issue. So what? It took the last 44 years creating a viable space station so why not take the time to create an artificial gravity environment for our astronauts?

If there is a time issue here where we are about to be smacked by a huge asteroid or something, then it would be a good time to either destroy it or leave. If not, then let’s take the time to do it right until we can create force fields, gravitational (artificial or otherwise) environments, and improved propulsion devices?

Electromagnetic Force

Here is where the term, ‘gravitational force’, not artificial force comes into play. This is my favorite theory, although, the more this writer studies it the more it ‘escapes’ me. Why not simulate the actual ‘earth-type’ model to create an earth-like, artificial environment in space?

Presently, work is underway to develop a form of electromagnetic propulsion known as EMP. It utilizes the Lorentz force. The concept is not new. It uses charged particles in a magnetic environment to create a ‘no waste’ form of propulsion. So far, the applications are not considered to create a strong enough of thrust to be significant. And, it takes a long time to get up to speed, as well as, decelerate.

Well, it seemed simple enough in the beginning where we live on a rotating earth, hurtling through space, tied into a complex structure with like electromagnetic and gravitational forces in our solar system that exist in a perfect balance, right? Well, not so fast…a number of people claim that a spinning earth should throw us off into space? The good news is that doesn’t happen.

Gravity And Magnetic Fields

There are complex magnetic fields induced by a very dense, hot metallic core inside earth. That field actually holds us on our planet where life exists, today. However, magnetism depends on the exact properties of conductive and ferrous materials to pull or push themselves apart. Here is the hard part to understand, for many: Gravity is very weak, in some ways! Where we feel the ‘weight of the world’ upon us is not really a weight, at all. Yet, in essence, it is an incredible force.

In fact, our bodies are pretty much ‘anti-gravity’ (bad term-more non-conductive) by nature, so we should not be affected, yet we are? It is because gravity and magnetism are totally different. Gravity depends on the pull of masses to each other. An example here is that we notice gravity by living on earth because the earth mass is so great. Our mass is so small it has no effect on anything else, much less the earth. Truly, we understand almost nothing about gravity, for now.

To date, gravitons and other sub-atomic particles are still theoretical. So, for now, they do not exist. We should create a simulated, artificial gravity environment with centripetal force. In sum, the time is now to begin, foster, and grow this project.


Teleportation, 3-D printing; are you kidding? You mean it is real? Well, yes, to a certain degree, it is. It is the time to develop this form of material creation into practical application. Let us explore these developments.

3-D Printing

Briefly, 3-D printing, although in its infancy, is a reality. Tools and other devices have been constructed from basic materials. It is important this invention is developed, further. And, it would be good to have before we venture beyond earth orbit to the asteroids and other planets. So, having on board a 3-D printing device manufacturing tools and other materials from raw materials could be instrumental and less expensive to produce.

Photo-polymer resins are being developed to increase the ‘shelf-life’ of manufactured plastic components used over time. This author wanted to understand how this is developed. Fascinating.

Especially, this would be a necessity for longer voyages beyond our solar system. Let us hope we can utilize this unique invention to create more productive devices. This writer has contacted one of the companies that has produced this kind of printer and it is most incredible to learn the applications. The most formidable tasks are creating plastics that do not degrade in ultra-violet light over time.

Teleportation Experimentation

The first successful attempt at teleporting sub-atomic particles came from collaboration with scientists from the University of Innsbruk, Austria and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (Nist) US, in 2004. The latest achievement came in 2014 after a number of other successes.

This was a true milestone where the concept of using a quantum computer to move qubits in an entangled state from the sending device could actually recreate or transform the same atomic state to the receiving device! Remember, this, too is in its infancy a reality, as well.

Teleportation Success

These are, for now, photons or charged atoms (ions-electrons) have been successfully teleported. Advances in the area of quantum physics are escalating. The same goes for quantum mechanics. From research, to simply say, we are on the absolute threshold of discovery! It is estimated we could achieve the above goals in a few tens of years. Otherwise, don’t count your “chickens before they hatch” because you will be wasting your time.

After all, if the reader has made it this far, would one not consider that our future is most amazing? Further, with a bit more perception and forethought, it is just plain common sense. We will visit the stars, one day. And, we could become friends with other beings. At this time, we could only envisage this in a science fiction format. And, most certainly, there is evidence this has already occurred.

Teleportation On A Grander Scale

Consider, how convenient and efficient it would be to send astronauts to a planetary or asteroid surface with teleportation. Having a receiving and sending unit to teleport men and materiel would be more efficient. This would preclude expending fuel and resources with shuttle craft to transport the same. Teleportation of sub-atomic particles have succeeded. And, atoms are next on the list and could be just years away from teleportation.

According to Dr. Andrew Basiago, who ran for president of the United States in 2016, stated that we have engaged in teleportation since 1981. Dr. Basiago claims time travel is real. This is not a new concept. Some evidence, although speculative, has surfaced since the Germans had supposedly delved in such activity in WWII. Is it real or just speculation? What about TR-3B crafts and red mercury? Is that speculation, as well?

Have other entities influenced us? Are they from here on earth, another planet or time? Are they us from the future? Where is concrete evidence? Except from some books, pictures, and personal accounts, there is little to go on. What do you think? The reader is free to postulate and comment. We do live in the most incredible of times where each day new answers arise from the questions asked.


In sum, the implications of the above technology and experiments underway is absolutely fascinating! So, let us look forward with anticipation to these monumental breakthroughs. Technology will forever improve and lift our future to heights hitherto unimaginable.

Truly, the world is our ‘oyster’ to enjoy. Future space travel to other worlds, mining of asteroids, and colonization of other planets is only a matter of time.

To me, it is all about the human condition, the betterment and emancipation of humanity. It is all we have. I believe, do you?

UNIVERSAL DIGEST is pleased to be a conduit for our contributing authors. We do not claim credit; we simply want to make it more available to the general public. The opinions of the authors are not necessarily the opinion or stance of this website, vendors, advertisers, assigns, or affiliates.

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NASA began sharing the images of the Viking Mars missions in 1976. The spacecraft started to send images of the surface of the red planet back to earth showing ancient riverbeds, what appear to be pyramids, and an enormous face. The prospects that Mars once had a modern civilization existing there has sparked the interest of the science community, astronomers, and has caused some to devote their entire lives in researching all evidence they can get to prove that the planet once had a thriving modern civilization and still may have inhabitants living mostly underground today. People like Richard Hoagland who began gathering as much information as possible since the Viking images and published a book “The Monuments of Mars a City on the Edge of Forever” where he uses what evidence available to prove that Mars once had a thriving modern civilization.

Matteo Ianneo has also devoted his life to discovering clues of past modern civilizations, while primarily of Mars, he also investigates all information on other planets in the solar system and of earth as well.

But just how accurate and truthful are the Martian images? In the decades since the Viking photographs, it seems NASA has improved the quality of its images, showing a desert environment, mountains, and even ice. Most NASA images we have seen recently are so strikingly similar to the topography of earth, many question if these images were really taken here and presented to the public as being of the surface of Mars.

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Here is an image taken at Devon Island, Canada. NASA published this as actual images of the martian landscape.

It seems that many of them are really from earth, not from Mars at all. It appears that NASA has decided to take pictures of their Mars training spot here on earth and present them to the public as authentic images of the red planet.

Today, way too many NASA images of Mars can be traced to their Martian training site on Devon Island, Canada. Here the topography is exactly a carbon copy of the images they tell us is the Martian surface.

Recently in 2018, the European Space Agency’s Mars Express spacecraft supposedly sent back an image of an ice covered Korolev Crater on the plain that surrounds the Martian north pole. The only problem with this, it is actually a photograph of the Haughton impact crater located on Devon Island here on earth.

This little indiscretion isn’t the only image claiming to be from Mars, but is actually a location from earth that can be traced from comparing what NASA says are Martian images. If you visit NASA’s Mars Curiosity Image Gallery and then search the topography of Devon Island, Canada on a search engine, you will find that most images that NASA is claiming to be from Mars, are actually fake, having been taken from Devon Island.

There can be only one explanation for NASA to fake pictures from Mars and that is they discovered a lot more of an intelligent civilization on this planet during the Viking missions than they are willing to admit to. The area where the Viking mission landed was desert, but as we can observe from earth, not all of the planet is a desert.

During the year, large areas on the surface of mars changes color, from a dull reddish tan color in winter, then getting darker during spring, to dark areas during the Martian summer. This constant seasonal color change would not be possible without massive plant life changing color according to seasonal changes.

The modern Martian civilization the Viking mission encountered had to have ordered us to leave the planet and never return, similar to what we were told on the moon, explaining why we never went back.

The failure rate of missions to the red planet are suspiciously high, too high to rack up as coincidences. In the 1990s alone, 4 out of 6 Mars missions failed, and this is nothing compared to the failed Russian Mars missions since the 1960s.

Since NASA began to send images of Mars in 1976, they have to keep up the facade to the public, primarily because they have to show the public that they are making great strides into new discoveries on Mars, as well as keeping the funding coming in. This is now a proven fact, they are lying to the public and faking images they say are from Mars, but are really from Devon Island, Canada.

Written By: Tony R Elliott

UNIVERSAL DIGEST is pleased to be a conduit for our contributing authors. This article was produced being mostly unedited. We do not claim credit; we simply want to make it more available to the general public. The opinions of the authors are not necessarily the opinion or stance of this website.

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The six-member Expedition 59 crew poses for a portrait inside Northrop Grumman’s Cygnus commercial space freighter dubbed the S.S. Roger B. Chaffee. Clockwise from bottom are cosmonauts Alexey Ovchinin and Oleg Kononenko; NASA astronauts Christina Koch and Nick Hague; Canadian Space Agency astronaut David Saint-Jacques and NASA astronaut Anne McClain. Homecoming is imminent.


Homecoming is near for the Expedition 59 crew members of the International Space Station.

After a usual six-month tour aboard ISS, it is time for the next expedition to return home to earth in late June.

Station Trio Prepping for June 24 Earth Return

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The six-member Expedition 59 crew poses for a portrait inside Northrop Grumman’s Cygnus commercial space freighter dubbed the S.S. Roger B. Chaffee. Clockwise from bottom are cosmonauts Alexey Ovchinin and Oleg Kononenko; NASA astronauts Christina Koch and Nick Hague; Canadian Space Agency astronaut David Saint-Jacques and NASA astronaut Anne McClain. Homecoming is imminent.

Three Expedition 59 crew members are getting ready to end their stay at the International Space Station after six and a half months in space. Meanwhile, mission scientists continue exploring how micro-gravity impacts the human body.

Flight Engineers Anne McClain and David Saint-Jacques will flank Commander Oleg Kononenko inside the Soyuz MS-11 spacecraft when they return to Earth on June 24. McClain videotaped herself in virtual reality talking about her first space mission today using a 360-degree camera in Japan’s Kibo laboratory module. The trio have been in space since Dec. 3.

The Home Trip Gathering

Saint-Jacques and Kononenko began gathering items to take back home inside their Soyuz crew ship. The duo collected personal items such as shoes and clothes as well as tools and trash that will be soon be stowed aboard the Soyuz for the ride to Earth.

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SpaceX Dragon supply ship, laden with science experiments for return to earth is shown grappled with Canadianarm2 before departure. Homecoming to earth is set for June 24, 2019.

Saint-Jacques also researched ways to supplement crew nutrition during future long-term space missions, such as missions to the Moon and Mars. Food stowed for long periods can lose nutritional value. The BioNutrients-1 study is exploring manufacturing nutritional compounds in space to maintain healthy crews for successful missions.

NASA astronauts Christina Koch and Nick Hague started Monday morning by drawing blood samples and spinning them in a centrifuge before stowing them in science freezer. Doctors on the ground will analyze the samples to detect critical changes to a crew member’s physiology while living in space. The pair also participated in visual acuity tests using an eye chart in the afternoon.

Written By: Mark Garcia NASA

UNIVERSAL DIGEST is pleased to be a conduit for some of NASA’s projects and work. This article and some others were written by NASA and are mostly unedited. We do not claim credit, we simply want to make them more available to the general public.

Universal Digest is committed to providing its audience with the most timely news reporting; however, there are times where this is not possible. Therefore, a concise reporting of historical news occurrences are published, as soon as, is practicable.

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Cosmonauts Alexey Ovchinin (foreground) and Oleg Kononenko work on a pair of Russian Orlan spacesuits inside the Pirs docking compartment’s airlock.


Sleep in for the crew was the next scheduled task after a successful spacewalk. The six-hour maintenance excursion outside the space station was successful.

Some science duties were undertaken; however, the ISS crew also enjoyed a relaxed work time during the day.

This two-part article details the spacewalk wrap-up yesterday afternoon; it continues from the 3-part article on May 29, 2019.

Light Science Duties as Crew Sleeps in After Spacewalk

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Nick Hague works on transferring science to a freezer for storage. After the 6-hour spacewalk the crew had a well-deserved sleep in.

The six-member Expedition 59 crew had a chance to sleep in the day after wrapping up a successful spacewalk on the Russian side of the International Space Station. The cosmonauts are cleaning up this afternoon from yesterday’s excursion while the rest of the orbiting crew focuses on exercise research and other light science duties.

NASA astronauts Nick Hague and Christina Koch woke up after lunch today and strapped themselves into an exercise bike inside the U.S. Destiny laboratory module. The duo took turns working out on the specialized bicycle attached to sensors for the experiment measuring oxygen uptake and aerobic capacity.

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David Saint-Jacques works on space biology science hardware. After a sleep in the crew enjoyed a relaxed afternoon at the station.

Flight Engineers Anne McClain and David Saint-Jacques checked on a couple of life science experiments during their relaxed afternoon. McClain updated software for the Photobioreactor study exploring how microalgae can create a hybrid life support system for astronauts and Earthlings. Saint-Jacques turned off and stowed the Canadian Bio-Monitor device that can quickly analyze human biological samples in space.

Commander Oleg Kononenko and Flight Engineer Alexey Ovchinin are reconfiguring the Pirs airlock, cleaning spacesuits and stowing tools following Wednesday’s six hour and one minute spacewalk. The cosmonauts also debriefed spacewalk experts on the ground discussing their hardware removal and experiment jettisoning tasks.

Later Yesterday May 29, 2019

Two Cosmonauts Wrap Up the Fourth Spacewalk at the Station This Year

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Spacewalkers Oleg Kononenko and Alexey Ovchinin work outside the Pirs docking compartment during the fourth spacewalk of the year at the International Space Station.

Expedition 59 Commander Oleg Kononenko and Flight Engineer Alexey Ovchinin of the Russian space agency Roscosmos have completed a spacewalk lasting 6 hours and 1 minute.

The two cosmonauts opened the hatch to the Pirs docking compartment to begin the spacewalk at 11:42 a.m. EDT. They re-entered the airlock and closed the hatch at 5:43 p.m.

During the spacewalk, the duo completed the planned tasks, including installing a handrail on the Russian segment of the complex, retrieving science experiments from the Poisk module’s hull; removing and jettisoning the plasma wave experiment hardware; and conducting maintenance work on the orbiting laboratory, such as cleaning the window of the Poisk hatch.

The spacewalk was the 217th in support of station assembly, maintenance and upgrades and the fourth outside the station this year.

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217 Spacewalks at the International Space Station detail.

This was the fifth spacewalk in Kononenko’s career and the first for Ovchinin, who will become station commander next month. Kononenko is scheduled to return to Earth June 24, with crewmates Anne McClain of NASA and David Saint-Jacques of the Canadian Space Agency, wrapping up a six-and-a-half-month mission living and working in space.

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Cosmonauts Alexey Ovchinin (foreground) and Oleg Kononenko work on a pair of Russian Orlan spacesuits inside the Pirs docking compartment’s airlock.

Written By: Mark Garcia NASA

UNIVERSAL DIGEST is pleased to be a conduit for some of NASA’s projects and work. This article and some others were written by NASA and are mostly unedited. We do not claim credit, we simply want to make them more available to the general public.

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