ARTIFICIAL GRAVITY AND ITS POSSIBILITIES

Courtesy Mashable, this concept of an artificial gravity space station is considered for 2025.

ARTIFICIAL GRAVITY AND ITS POSSIBILITIES

Artificial Gravity, Teleportation, and Space Program was first written for publication in April, 2015. The article was to address some of the most complex areas of space travel NASA is yet to face. Since then, what this writer considered concepts to be in their infancy has advanced, dramatically. 

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Courtesy Artificial Gravity, this experimental concept is being considered.

Tempus fugit! Time flies, as the old Latin term applies! Mankind, at war has moved from spears, arrows and shields to guided missiles, nukes and lasers in less than five thousand years? We understood nothing of the sun, earth and sky until now now in the same amount of time?

Now, we have incredible evidence in history, yet we still contemplate the sky and hang onto old concepts until it becomes almost too obvious we must make a major change to move forward? Well, problematic or not, the time has come to invent an efficient method of artificial gravity for humans in space for the space program to blossom and grow.

SPACE FLIGHT BEGINNINGS

From the beginnings of the space programs of both the United States and then the Union of the Soviet Socialist Republic (USSR-Soviet Union-Russia) from 1957 onward, it was a ‘space race’. The ‘cold war’ between the two super powers ended in late 1991. On April 13, 1961, the Soviet Union’s cosmonaut, Yuri Gagarin became the first human to be launched into space. Just 23 days later on May 5, 1961, Alan Shepard became the first American launched into space from Cape Canaveral, Florida, USA.

The continued exploits of both the United States and Russia continued with such programs as the Mercury, Friendship, Vostok, Gemini, Soyuz, and Apollo in the 1960’s. In December of 1968 Apollo 8 successfully orbited the moon and returned, safely. The Apollo 11 mission successfully landed astronauts on the moon on July 20, 1969. There were six missions with soft landings on the moon ending in August 22, 1976. The next soft landing on the moon was not until December of 2013 and that was robotic. In the 1990’s the Chinese entered manned space programs with the Shenzhou missions.

SINCE THE BEGINNINGS

Since then, the space programs of various nations have moved forward in both human and robotic exploration. Ultimately, both nations, who competed for years would have to realize without each other to collaborate, their programs would be compromised. What if something tragic would happen while in orbit of earth or, perish forbid, on reentry to home? Those concerns did come from unfortunate and tragic occurrences that happened both on earth and reentry from missions by both countries over the years.

After manned moon landings, sights were set for the next step: Mars. Up until now, man enduring weightless environments had only been for short periods of time. No one then knew of how the human body would stand up to a continuous weightless environment over longer periods. Hence, programs were developed to research not only a weightless state for man, it was also for other animal and plant life from microbial to existing biological forms.

SPACE STATIONS

The age began where orbiting space stations were constructed beginning with the Soviet Salyut 1, launched April 19, 1971. Soon to follow was the United States Skylab and Soviet Almaz stations, which were really not much more than orbiting “tin cans” with a minimum complement humans and testing equipment. Although, short lived, these missions led to the space station we know today as ISS (International Space Station) and the Chinese Tiangong-1.

The Russian (originally Soviet) MIR space station was the largest in orbit until its decay and ultimate return from space in 2001. To be able to supply the ISS, as well as, launch satellites into orbit or space, the United States developed the shuttle program. Soyuz is used to this day to transport astronauts to and from the ISS orbiting platform. Now, with the advent of private space enterprises and the cessation of the NASA shuttle program, there are now robotic shipments arriving to ISS for the near future.

SPACE EXPLORATION – THE FUTURE

The nations engaged in the continued efforts in space exploration and continued habitation are incredible, to say the least. To date, we have reached a plateau in scientific research. It is time for a demonstrative change in how we conduct the future of space exploration.
The time has come to make this statement. Anti-gravity applications are in order.

“Please consider we are sending astronauts to accommodate conditions existing in space, not accommodating space for the astronauts. Please start adapting environments on our space vehicles to create a more earth-like environment for them. We must now invent the methods by which we can travel to the planets, and ultimately, the stars. Even before the upcoming Mars mission; if we do not, we are sentencing the colonizers with a good possibility of early death.”

Pioneers of every age of man have been travelers and explorers. Most met with doom until they achieved their goals. From the smallest of gains to the largest of them, there was no change until now. We must overcome the artificial gravity issue to add to the tools our explorers can use to maximize their success potential.

ADVANCEMENTS

Recent developments of improved rocketry by private concerns states its magnetic, plasma rocket engine (VASIMR) could transport astronauts to Mars in 39 days instead of 6 months, we are still faced with the same problem of longer missions to outer planets and asteroids. And, electrical power requirements are beyond what can be produced, at this time. This is why we should take the time to construct a craft with an earth-like gravity environment. Further comment on this is written below.

Artificial Gravity

Why has it not yet been invented and applied to date? Let’s take a look at some of the issues at hand. Of course, it is the overall expense of completing this project. Please read further to learn more.

Centripetal Force

One of the major problems here is the size of the craft. To create enough rotation to simulate a one gravity environment would require a habitat of over 300 feet so the craft would be huge. A smaller craft size would require a much more rapid rotation, which could actually be harder on astronauts than weightless environment because the ‘gravity’ differentials from head to toe would vary, greatly.

Here, rapidly spinning ‘rings’ would be incorporated to create this form of artificial gravity.

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Courtesy Trade Science, this diagram shows the effects of artificial gravity of centripetal force where rotation around a central point.

Serious thought has been given to creating mini-centrifuges on the craft to simulate temporary reprieves from enduring weightless flight; however, the problems again arise of uneven gravity on different parts of the human body. So far, the ‘spinning beds’ are the best contrived and utilized. Astronauts spend over 20 percent of their time exercising to fight the effects of a weightless environment instead of using this for quality research in an earth-friendly environment! What a waste of time, energy and expense, isn’t it?

Centrifugal Force

Centrifugal Force is where artificial gravity is created from a central point. The occupants would traverse a floor that circles around the central point.

Thus, artificial gravity is created where the craft itself would spin.

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Courtesy Chegg, this diagram shows artificial gravity from a central point where the floor is circular. It is known as centrifugal force.

The diagram above shows how centrifugal force works as artificial gravity.

Artificial Gravity From Direct Acceleration

Another form of artificial gravity may be formed due to direct craft acceleration.

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Courtesy Chegg, this diagram shows the effects of artificial gravity due to acceleration.

In this case, a craft accelerating towards its destination would be utilized to create artificial gravity. As the craft approaches the destination, it would actually turn around to create deceleration. This would also create an artificial gravity environment for the occupants.

Economic Implications

The next major hurdle to overcome is the expense of lifting incredible amounts of material into orbit to create a craft that could be large enough to simulate an earth-like environment while travelling in orbit, to Mars, asteroids, or even other planets in our solar system. Of course, until we create a FTL (faster-than-light) or ‘warp/inter-dimensional’ forms of propulsion, travelling to other star systems is out of the question.

Now, here is my contention to this problematic expense issue. So what? It took the last 44 years creating a viable space station so why not take the time to create an artificial gravity environment for our astronauts?

If there is a time issue here where we are about to be smacked by a huge asteroid or something, then it would be a good time to either destroy it or leave. If not, then let’s take the time to do it right until we can create force fields, gravitational (artificial or otherwise) environments, and improved propulsion devices?

Electromagnetic Force

Here is where the term, ‘gravitational force’, not artificial force comes into play. This is my favorite theory, although, the more this writer studies it the more it ‘escapes’ me. Why not simulate the actual ‘earth-type’ model to create an earth-like, artificial environment in space?

Presently, work is underway to develop a form of electromagnetic propulsion known as EMP. It utilizes the Lorentz force. The concept is not new. It uses charged particles in a magnetic environment to create a ‘no waste’ form of propulsion. So far, the applications are not considered to create a strong enough of thrust to be significant. And, it takes a long time to get up to speed, as well as, decelerate.

Well, it seemed simple enough in the beginning where we live on a rotating earth, hurtling through space, tied into a complex structure with like electromagnetic and gravitational forces in our solar system that exist in a perfect balance, right? Well, not so fast…a number of people claim that a spinning earth should throw us off into space? The good news is that doesn’t happen.

Gravity And Magnetic Fields

There are complex magnetic fields induced by a very dense, hot metallic core inside earth. That field actually holds us on our planet where life exists, today. However, magnetism depends on the exact properties of conductive and ferrous materials to pull or push themselves apart. Here is the hard part to understand, for many: Gravity is very weak, in some ways! Where we feel the ‘weight of the world’ upon us is not really a weight, at all. Yet, in essence, it is an incredible force.

In fact, our bodies are pretty much ‘anti-gravity’ (bad term-more non-conductive) by nature, so we should not be affected, yet we are? It is because gravity and magnetism are totally different. Gravity depends on the pull of masses to each other. An example here is that we notice gravity by living on earth because the earth mass is so great. Our mass is so small it has no effect on anything else, much less the earth. Truly, we understand almost nothing about gravity, for now.

To date, gravitons and other sub-atomic particles are still theoretical. So, for now, they do not exist. We should create a simulated, artificial gravity environment with centripetal force. In sum, the time is now to begin, foster, and grow this project.

3-D PRINTING AND TELEPORTATION

Teleportation, 3-D printing; are you kidding? You mean it is real? Well, yes, to a certain degree, it is. It is the time to develop this form of material creation into practical application. Let us explore these developments.

3-D Printing

Briefly, 3-D printing, although in its infancy, is a reality. Tools and other devices have been constructed from basic materials. It is important this invention is developed, further. And, it would be good to have before we venture beyond earth orbit to the asteroids and other planets. So, having on board a 3-D printing device manufacturing tools and other materials from raw materials could be instrumental and less expensive to produce.

Photo-polymer resins are being developed to increase the ‘shelf-life’ of manufactured plastic components used over time. This author wanted to understand how this is developed. Fascinating.

Especially, this would be a necessity for longer voyages beyond our solar system. Let us hope we can utilize this unique invention to create more productive devices. This writer has contacted one of the companies that has produced this kind of printer and it is most incredible to learn the applications. The most formidable tasks are creating plastics that do not degrade in ultra-violet light over time.

Teleportation Experimentation

The first successful attempt at teleporting sub-atomic particles came from collaboration with scientists from the University of Innsbruk, Austria and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (Nist) US, in 2004. The latest achievement came in 2014 after a number of other successes.

This was a true milestone where the concept of using a quantum computer to move qubits in an entangled state from the sending device could actually recreate or transform the same atomic state to the receiving device! Remember, this, too is in its infancy a reality, as well.

Teleportation Success

These are, for now, photons or charged atoms (ions-electrons) have been successfully teleported. Advances in the area of quantum physics are escalating. The same goes for quantum mechanics. From research, to simply say, we are on the absolute threshold of discovery! It is estimated we could achieve the above goals in a few tens of years. Otherwise, don’t count your “chickens before they hatch” because you will be wasting your time.

After all, if the reader has made it this far, would one not consider that our future is most amazing? Further, with a bit more perception and forethought, it is just plain common sense. We will visit the stars, one day. And, we could become friends with other beings. At this time, we could only envisage this in a science fiction format. And, most certainly, there is evidence this has already occurred.

Teleportation On A Grander Scale

Consider, how convenient and efficient it would be to send astronauts to a planetary or asteroid surface with teleportation. Having a receiving and sending unit to teleport men and materiel would be more efficient. This would preclude expending fuel and resources with shuttle craft to transport the same. Teleportation of sub-atomic particles have succeeded. And, atoms are next on the list and could be just years away from teleportation.

According to Dr. Andrew Basiago, who ran for president of the United States in 2016, stated that we have engaged in teleportation since 1981. Dr. Basiago claims time travel is real. This is not a new concept. Some evidence, although speculative, has surfaced since the Germans had supposedly delved in such activity in WWII. Is it real or just speculation? What about TR-3B crafts and red mercury? Is that speculation, as well?

Have other entities influenced us? Are they from here on earth, another planet or time? Are they us from the future? Where is concrete evidence? Except from some books, pictures, and personal accounts, there is little to go on. What do you think? The reader is free to postulate and comment. We do live in the most incredible of times where each day new answers arise from the questions asked.

SUMMATION

In sum, the implications of the above technology and experiments underway is absolutely fascinating! So, let us look forward with anticipation to these monumental breakthroughs. Technology will forever improve and lift our future to heights hitherto unimaginable.

Truly, the world is our ‘oyster’ to enjoy. Future space travel to other worlds, mining of asteroids, and colonization of other planets is only a matter of time.

To me, it is all about the human condition, the betterment and emancipation of humanity. It is all we have. I believe, do you?


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Launch of Russian Cargo Mission Scrubbed

Progress 68 Rocket

The Progress 68 resupply rocket stands at it launch pad at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. Credit: Roscosmos

Launch of the Russian Progress 68 cargo craft has been scrubbed for today. The next launch attempt will be no earlier than Saturday Oct. 14 at 4:46 am EDT (2:46 p.m. local time in Baikonur). Following a 34-orbit, two-day trip, Progress 68 would arrive at the Pirs Docking Compartment of the International Space Station for docking on Monday, Oct. 16. Roscosmos technicians in Baikonur are analyzing the cause of the scrubbed launch.

To join the conversation about the space station and Progress 68 online, follow @space_station on Twitter.

One day earlier:

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With the October 12 launch scrubbed until at least the 14th, Progress 68 sits on its launch pad.

Two astronauts checked in with ground engineers today after completing the second of three spacewalks yesterday that are planned for this month. Meanwhile, a Russian cargo ship stands at its launch pad ready to blast off Thursday morning on a short delivery trip to the International Space Station.

Commander Randy Bresnik and Flight Engineer Mark Vande Hei called down to Mission Control today to discuss the elements of Tuesday’s successful spacewalk. During the excursion, they began the lubrication process on the Canadarm2’s newly-installed latching end effector and swapped out a degraded video camera. Today, the spacewalkers are servicing their spacesuits’ water system and recharging the batteries.

Bresnik will conduct another spacewalk Oct. 18 with NASA astronaut Joe Acaba to finalize the servicing on the Canadarm2 robotic arm. The duo will also perform some electrical maintenance work and replace another degraded video camera. NASA TV will broadcast the third and final spacewalk on Oct. 18 beginning at 6:30 a.m.

Three tons of food, fuel and supplies are loaded inside a Russian resupply ship (ISS Progress 68) ready to lift off to the orbital complex Thursday at 5:32 a.m. The 68P will take just two orbits around Earth and dock to the station less than three-and-a-half hours later. This will be the shortest delivery mission for a Progress mission which usually takes a near six-hour trip, and in the past has taken up to two days to assist in the resupply of the complex.


UNIVERSAL DIGEST is pleased to be a conduit for some of NASA’s projects and work. This article and some others were written by NASA and are mostly unedited. We do not claim credit; we simply want to make them more available to the general public.

Universal Digest is committed to providing its audience with the most timely news reporting; however, there are times where this is not possible. Therefore, a concise reporting of historical news occurrences are published, as soon as, is practicable.

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TOUCHDOWN AS CREW LANDS ON EARTH

The Soyuz MS-04 vehicle is pictured the moment as it makes touchdown with the Expedition 52 crew inside. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

Touchdown as the Expedition 52 crew members return to earth in a safe landing.

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The Soyuz MS-04 vehicle is pictured the moment as it makes touchdown with the Expedition 52 crew inside. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

While living and working aboard the world’s only orbiting laboratory, Whitson and Fischer contributed to hundreds of experiments in biology, biotechnology, physical science and Earth science, welcomed several cargo spacecraft delivering tons of supplies and research experiments, and conducted a combined six spacewalks to perform maintenance and upgrades to the station.

Among their scientific exploits, Whitson and Fischer supported research into the physical changes to astronaut’s eyes caused by prolonged exposure to a microgravity environment. They also conducted a new lung tissue study that explored how stem cells work in the unique microgravity environment of the space station, which may pave the way for future stem cell research in space.

Additional research included an antibody investigation that could increase the effectiveness of chemotherapy drugs for cancer treatment, and the study of plant physiology and growth in space using an advanced plant habitat. NASA also attached the Cosmic Ray Energetics and Mass Investigation (ISS CREAM) on the outside of the space station in August, which is now observing cosmic rays coming from across the galaxy.

The crew members received a total of seven cargo deliveries during their mission. A Japanese H-II Transfer Vehicle launched to the space station in December 2016 delivering new lithium-ion batteries that were installed using a combination of robotics and spacewalks. Orbital ATK’s Cygnus spacecraft arrived at the station in April on the company’s seventh commercial resupply mission. Three SpaceX Dragon spacecraft completed commercial resupply missions to the station in February, June and August. And, Russian ISS Progress cargo spacecraft docked to the station in February and June.

Whitson’s touchdown return to earth marks the completion of a 288-day mission that began last November and spanned 122.2 million miles and 4,623 orbits of the Earth – her third long-duration mission on the station. During her latest mission, Whitson performed four spacewalks, bringing her career total to 10. With a total of 665 days in space, Whitson holds the U.S. record and places eighth on the all-time space endurance list.

Fischer, who launched in April, completed 136 days in space, during which he conducted the first and second spacewalks of his career. Yurchikhin, who launched with Fischer, now has a total of 673 days in space, putting him seventh place on the all-time endurance list.

Expedition 53 continues operating the station, with Randy Bresnik of NASA in command, and Sergey Ryazanskiy of Roscosmos and Paolo Nespoli of ESA (European Space Agency) serving as flight engineers. The three-person crew will operate the station until the arrival of NASA astronauts Mark Vande Hei and Joe Acaba, and Alexander Misurkin of Roscosmos. Vande Hei, Acaba and Misurkin are scheduled to launch Sept. 12 from Baikonur, Kazakhstan.

Get breaking news, images and features from the station on Instagram and Twitter at:

https://instagram.com/iss

https://www.twitter.com/Space_Station

Written By: Mark Garcia NASA

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UNIVERSAL DIGEST is pleased to be a conduit for some of NASA’s projects and work. This article and some others were written by NASA and are mostly unedited. We do not claim credit, we simply want to make them more available to the general public.

Universal Digest is committed to providing its audience with the most timely news reporting; however, there are times where this is not possible. Therefore, a concise reporting of historical news occurrences are published, as soon as, is practicable.

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NEW CREW PREPARE FOR LAUNCH

The next crew prepare for launch to the International Space Station. They are the next Expedition 53-54 mission astronauts.

The next team of astronauts prepare for the next launch to the International Space Station. They are detailed in the image below.

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The Expedition 53-54 crew members (from left) Joe Acaba, Alexander Misurkin and Mark Vande Hei. Misurkin is a Roscosmos cosmonaut prepare for his second trip to the station. Acaba and Vande Hei are both NASA astronauts. Acaba is making his third trip to space. Vande Hei is about to embark on his first space mission.

A new set of Expedition 53 crew members arrived at the Baikonur Cosmodrome launch site today ahead of their Sept. 12 liftoff to the International Space Station. NASA astronauts Joe Acaba and Mark Vande Hei along with cosmonaut Alexander Misurkin will take a near six-hour ride to their new home in space aboard the Soyuz MS-06 spacecraft.

The orbiting Expedition 53 trio is checking out new exercise gear today that takes up less space and is more reliable than current station equipment. The crew is also getting ready to explore DNA alterations that occur when living in space.

The new Mini-Exercise Device-2 (MED-2) is an order of magnitude lighter and smaller than existing equipment on the station. Commander Randy Bresnik worked out on the MED-2 today testing its ability provide motion and resistance workouts. Bresnik performed deadlifts and rows on the MED-2 to demonstrate the reliability of its small robotic actuators.

The commander also set up a work area for upcoming work with the student-designed Genes In Space-2 experiment. The experiment will explore ways to observe how microgravity alters DNA and weakens the immune system.

Flight Engineer Paolo Nespoli from the European Space Agency checked out physics and life science equipment today. The veteran astronaut cleaned and installed handrails on the Electromagnetic Levitation device then swapped out gear inside the Space Automated Bioproduct Lab.

Written By: Mark Garcia NASA

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UNIVERSAL DIGEST is pleased to be a conduit for some of NASA’s projects and work. This article and some others were written by NASA and are mostly unedited. We do not claim credit, we simply want to make them more available to the general public.

Universal Digest is committed to providing its audience with the most timely news reporting; however, there are times where this is not possible. Therefore, a concise reporting of historical news occurrences are published, as soon as, is practicable.

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