Courtesy Mashable, this concept of an artificial gravity space station is considered for 2025.


Artificial Gravity, Teleportation, and Space Program was first written for publication in April, 2015. The article was to address some of the most complex areas of space travel NASA is yet to face. Since then, what this writer considered concepts to be in their infancy has advanced, dramatically. 

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Courtesy Artificial Gravity, this experimental concept is being considered.

Tempus fugit! Time flies, as the old Latin term applies! Mankind, at war has moved from spears, arrows and shields to guided missiles, nukes and lasers in less than five thousand years? We understood nothing of the sun, earth and sky until now now in the same amount of time?

Now, we have incredible evidence in history, yet we still contemplate the sky and hang onto old concepts until it becomes almost too obvious we must make a major change to move forward? Well, problematic or not, the time has come to invent an efficient method of artificial gravity for humans in space for the space program to blossom and grow.


From the beginnings of the space programs of both the United States and then the Union of the Soviet Socialist Republic (USSR-Soviet Union-Russia) from 1957 onward, it was a ‘space race’. The ‘cold war’ between the two super powers ended in late 1991. On April 13, 1961, the Soviet Union’s cosmonaut, Yuri Gagarin became the first human to be launched into space. Just 23 days later on May 5, 1961, Alan Shepard became the first American launched into space from Cape Canaveral, Florida, USA.

The continued exploits of both the United States and Russia continued with such programs as the Mercury, Friendship, Vostok, Gemini, Soyuz, and Apollo in the 1960’s. In December of 1968 Apollo 8 successfully orbited the moon and returned, safely. The Apollo 11 mission successfully landed astronauts on the moon on July 20, 1969. There were six missions with soft landings on the moon ending in August 22, 1976. The next soft landing on the moon was not until December of 2013 and that was robotic. In the 1990’s the Chinese entered manned space programs with the Shenzhou missions.


Since then, the space programs of various nations have moved forward in both human and robotic exploration. Ultimately, both nations, who competed for years would have to realize without each other to collaborate, their programs would be compromised. What if something tragic would happen while in orbit of earth or, perish forbid, on reentry to home? Those concerns did come from unfortunate and tragic occurrences that happened both on earth and reentry from missions by both countries over the years.

After manned moon landings, sights were set for the next step: Mars. Up until now, man enduring weightless environments had only been for short periods of time. No one then knew of how the human body would stand up to a continuous weightless environment over longer periods. Hence, programs were developed to research not only a weightless state for man, it was also for other animal and plant life from microbial to existing biological forms.


The age began where orbiting space stations were constructed beginning with the Soviet Salyut 1, launched April 19, 1971. Soon to follow was the United States Skylab and Soviet Almaz stations, which were really not much more than orbiting “tin cans” with a minimum complement humans and testing equipment. Although, short lived, these missions led to the space station we know today as ISS (International Space Station) and the Chinese Tiangong-1.

The Russian (originally Soviet) MIR space station was the largest in orbit until its decay and ultimate return from space in 2001. To be able to supply the ISS, as well as, launch satellites into orbit or space, the United States developed the shuttle program. Soyuz is used to this day to transport astronauts to and from the ISS orbiting platform. Now, with the advent of private space enterprises and the cessation of the NASA shuttle program, there are now robotic shipments arriving to ISS for the near future.


The nations engaged in the continued efforts in space exploration and continued habitation are incredible, to say the least. To date, we have reached a plateau in scientific research. It is time for a demonstrative change in how we conduct the future of space exploration.
The time has come to make this statement. Anti-gravity applications are in order.

“Please consider we are sending astronauts to accommodate conditions existing in space, not accommodating space for the astronauts. Please start adapting environments on our space vehicles to create a more earth-like environment for them. We must now invent the methods by which we can travel to the planets, and ultimately, the stars. Even before the upcoming Mars mission; if we do not, we are sentencing the colonizers with a good possibility of early death.”

Pioneers of every age of man have been travelers and explorers. Most met with doom until they achieved their goals. From the smallest of gains to the largest of them, there was no change until now. We must overcome the artificial gravity issue to add to the tools our explorers can use to maximize their success potential.


Recent developments of improved rocketry by private concerns states its magnetic, plasma rocket engine (VASIMR) could transport astronauts to Mars in 39 days instead of 6 months, we are still faced with the same problem of longer missions to outer planets and asteroids. And, electrical power requirements are beyond what can be produced, at this time. This is why we should take the time to construct a craft with an earth-like gravity environment. Further comment on this is written below.

Artificial Gravity

Why has it not yet been invented and applied to date? Let’s take a look at some of the issues at hand. Of course, it is the overall expense of completing this project. Please read further to learn more.

Centripetal Force

One of the major problems here is the size of the craft. To create enough rotation to simulate a one gravity environment would require a habitat of over 300 feet so the craft would be huge. A smaller craft size would require a much more rapid rotation, which could actually be harder on astronauts than weightless environment because the ‘gravity’ differentials from head to toe would vary, greatly.

Here, rapidly spinning ‘rings’ would be incorporated to create this form of artificial gravity.

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Courtesy Trade Science, this diagram shows the effects of artificial gravity of centripetal force where rotation around a central point.

Serious thought has been given to creating mini-centrifuges on the craft to simulate temporary reprieves from enduring weightless flight; however, the problems again arise of uneven gravity on different parts of the human body. So far, the ‘spinning beds’ are the best contrived and utilized. Astronauts spend over 20 percent of their time exercising to fight the effects of a weightless environment instead of using this for quality research in an earth-friendly environment! What a waste of time, energy and expense, isn’t it?

Centrifugal Force

Centrifugal Force is where artificial gravity is created from a central point. The occupants would traverse a floor that circles around the central point.

Thus, artificial gravity is created where the craft itself would spin.

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Courtesy Chegg, this diagram shows artificial gravity from a central point where the floor is circular. It is known as centrifugal force.

The diagram above shows how centrifugal force works as artificial gravity.

Artificial Gravity From Direct Acceleration

Another form of artificial gravity may be formed due to direct craft acceleration.

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Courtesy Chegg, this diagram shows the effects of artificial gravity due to acceleration.

In this case, a craft accelerating towards its destination would be utilized to create artificial gravity. As the craft approaches the destination, it would actually turn around to create deceleration. This would also create an artificial gravity environment for the occupants.

Economic Implications

The next major hurdle to overcome is the expense of lifting incredible amounts of material into orbit to create a craft that could be large enough to simulate an earth-like environment while travelling in orbit, to Mars, asteroids, or even other planets in our solar system. Of course, until we create a FTL (faster-than-light) or ‘warp/inter-dimensional’ forms of propulsion, travelling to other star systems is out of the question.

Now, here is my contention to this problematic expense issue. So what? It took the last 44 years creating a viable space station so why not take the time to create an artificial gravity environment for our astronauts?

If there is a time issue here where we are about to be smacked by a huge asteroid or something, then it would be a good time to either destroy it or leave. If not, then let’s take the time to do it right until we can create force fields, gravitational (artificial or otherwise) environments, and improved propulsion devices?

Electromagnetic Force

Here is where the term, ‘gravitational force’, not artificial force comes into play. This is my favorite theory, although, the more this writer studies it the more it ‘escapes’ me. Why not simulate the actual ‘earth-type’ model to create an earth-like, artificial environment in space?

Presently, work is underway to develop a form of electromagnetic propulsion known as EMP. It utilizes the Lorentz force. The concept is not new. It uses charged particles in a magnetic environment to create a ‘no waste’ form of propulsion. So far, the applications are not considered to create a strong enough of thrust to be significant. And, it takes a long time to get up to speed, as well as, decelerate.

Well, it seemed simple enough in the beginning where we live on a rotating earth, hurtling through space, tied into a complex structure with like electromagnetic and gravitational forces in our solar system that exist in a perfect balance, right? Well, not so fast…a number of people claim that a spinning earth should throw us off into space? The good news is that doesn’t happen.

Gravity And Magnetic Fields

There are complex magnetic fields induced by a very dense, hot metallic core inside earth. That field actually holds us on our planet where life exists, today. However, magnetism depends on the exact properties of conductive and ferrous materials to pull or push themselves apart. Here is the hard part to understand, for many: Gravity is very weak, in some ways! Where we feel the ‘weight of the world’ upon us is not really a weight, at all. Yet, in essence, it is an incredible force.

In fact, our bodies are pretty much ‘anti-gravity’ (bad term-more non-conductive) by nature, so we should not be affected, yet we are? It is because gravity and magnetism are totally different. Gravity depends on the pull of masses to each other. An example here is that we notice gravity by living on earth because the earth mass is so great. Our mass is so small it has no effect on anything else, much less the earth. Truly, we understand almost nothing about gravity, for now.

To date, gravitons and other sub-atomic particles are still theoretical. So, for now, they do not exist. We should create a simulated, artificial gravity environment with centripetal force. In sum, the time is now to begin, foster, and grow this project.


Teleportation, 3-D printing; are you kidding? You mean it is real? Well, yes, to a certain degree, it is. It is the time to develop this form of material creation into practical application. Let us explore these developments.

3-D Printing

Briefly, 3-D printing, although in its infancy, is a reality. Tools and other devices have been constructed from basic materials. It is important this invention is developed, further. And, it would be good to have before we venture beyond earth orbit to the asteroids and other planets. So, having on board a 3-D printing device manufacturing tools and other materials from raw materials could be instrumental and less expensive to produce.

Photo-polymer resins are being developed to increase the ‘shelf-life’ of manufactured plastic components used over time. This author wanted to understand how this is developed. Fascinating.

Especially, this would be a necessity for longer voyages beyond our solar system. Let us hope we can utilize this unique invention to create more productive devices. This writer has contacted one of the companies that has produced this kind of printer and it is most incredible to learn the applications. The most formidable tasks are creating plastics that do not degrade in ultra-violet light over time.

Teleportation Experimentation

The first successful attempt at teleporting sub-atomic particles came from collaboration with scientists from the University of Innsbruk, Austria and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (Nist) US, in 2004. The latest achievement came in 2014 after a number of other successes.

This was a true milestone where the concept of using a quantum computer to move qubits in an entangled state from the sending device could actually recreate or transform the same atomic state to the receiving device! Remember, this, too is in its infancy a reality, as well.

Teleportation Success

These are, for now, photons or charged atoms (ions-electrons) have been successfully teleported. Advances in the area of quantum physics are escalating. The same goes for quantum mechanics. From research, to simply say, we are on the absolute threshold of discovery! It is estimated we could achieve the above goals in a few tens of years. Otherwise, don’t count your “chickens before they hatch” because you will be wasting your time.

After all, if the reader has made it this far, would one not consider that our future is most amazing? Further, with a bit more perception and forethought, it is just plain common sense. We will visit the stars, one day. And, we could become friends with other beings. At this time, we could only envisage this in a science fiction format. And, most certainly, there is evidence this has already occurred.

Teleportation On A Grander Scale

Consider, how convenient and efficient it would be to send astronauts to a planetary or asteroid surface with teleportation. Having a receiving and sending unit to teleport men and materiel would be more efficient. This would preclude expending fuel and resources with shuttle craft to transport the same. Teleportation of sub-atomic particles have succeeded. And, atoms are next on the list and could be just years away from teleportation.

According to Dr. Andrew Basiago, who ran for president of the United States in 2016, stated that we have engaged in teleportation since 1981. Dr. Basiago claims time travel is real. This is not a new concept. Some evidence, although speculative, has surfaced since the Germans had supposedly delved in such activity in WWII. Is it real or just speculation? What about TR-3B crafts and red mercury? Is that speculation, as well?

Have other entities influenced us? Are they from here on earth, another planet or time? Are they us from the future? Where is concrete evidence? Except from some books, pictures, and personal accounts, there is little to go on. What do you think? The reader is free to postulate and comment. We do live in the most incredible of times where each day new answers arise from the questions asked.


In sum, the implications of the above technology and experiments underway is absolutely fascinating! So, let us look forward with anticipation to these monumental breakthroughs. Technology will forever improve and lift our future to heights hitherto unimaginable.

Truly, the world is our ‘oyster’ to enjoy. Future space travel to other worlds, mining of asteroids, and colonization of other planets is only a matter of time.

To me, it is all about the human condition, the betterment and emancipation of humanity. It is all we have. I believe, do you?

UNIVERSAL DIGEST is pleased to be a conduit for our contributing authors. We do not claim credit; we simply want to make it more available to the general public. The opinions of the authors are not necessarily the opinion or stance of this website, vendors, advertisers, assigns, or affiliates.

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This is a view of Moro Rock. It is an iconic part of the Sequoia National Park only 45 minutes east of Visalia, CA off Route 198.

Sequoia National Park, located just 45 miles east of Visalia, California provides a multitude of attractions. Today’s article is about the trip to Moro Rock.

We traveled to Sequoia National Park on a perfect day in the central valley of California. In early November, temperatures dip into the low to mid 40’s during the night time and usually the 60’s during the day. Today it was close to 80 degrees Fahrenheit in the valley. In the mountains, it was around 50 degrees, which was quite pleasant.


Just a forty-five minute drive east from Visalia, California, we ascended the grade incline of CA Route 198 to the park entrance. We had picked an incredibly beautiful, sunlit day to visit the park. There was almost no traffic and all of whom we did meet, especially the park rangers were all friendly, outspoken, and cordial.

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Here is the front entrance to Sequoia National Park. It was the perfect day to go. There was almost no traffic.

There are so many different attractions at the Sequoia National Park this author recommends picking only one or two at a time to enhance the enjoyment of the experience in nature.

Depending on one’s travel schedule and how much time may be available, it is recommended to visit the link mentioned above and plan the trip carefully. From May through September of each year expect high visitor turnout to the park.

From Visalia on east there are various places to stay. There are also many restaurants to visit along the way. In fact, there are hotels located in the park, as well.


Needless to say, there are so many vista points and lay-by’s along the way only a couple will be reviewed in this article for brevity. Do pick a clear day to visit if picture-taking is one of your intentions during the visit. Depending on weather there can be many days where there is haze. Especially, as afternoon and early evening approaches one may find photo sessions to not be very effective. Consequently, earlier in the morning after the sun is over the mountains is the best time to take videos and photo snapshots.

If one has the time, pick one day to just drive completely through the park northward. Some of the roads do get very winding so make sure the driver is able to handle the task. From the CA Route 198 entrance in Tulare County, the road will finally head north until one reaches the park end in Fresno County at Kings Canyon National Park.

For those who can plan for a longer stay at the park, there are vacation rentals where one may stay, as well. Make reservations well in advance to preclude unfortunate outcomes.


As we passed the welcome center to the park, we made the right turn and headed for Moro Rock. The road and the incline became more of an issue. At some points the road had to wind past ancient sequoias, as well as, accommodate some rocky outcroppings. The trees and views were constantly alluring by nature. In a couple of places where curves were rather extreme, one had to take it very slow because the width of the road could barely allow two automobiles to pass, much less any larger vehicles.

Finally, we made it to the parking area. Of course, the rest of the trip was to be made on foot. Certainly, it must be noted that anyone with any respiratory, heart or mobility issues would not be able to continue farther.


Once we parked the vehicle, we looked to the right. Then, we looked up. And up. And up. We were going to climb that thing? Well, it is why we came. It was time to conquer. At the base of the escarpment there were ample signs in sealed displays to educate one on the discovery and history of Moro Rock. Some of it is provided here and in some image captions. It was discovered in 1858. Explorer Hale Tharp, with the help of two native Americans made the official discovery.


Before we started the climb, we did some reading from the displays provided. The history is amazing. In addition, how one who lives nearby can not be moved or at least interested in Sequoia National Park and its attractions.

Notably, above and below are some of the amazing photos of the incredible climb. Yes, the weather can be quite a factor, as mentioned earlier. Notably, one must always be prepared. Always, dress for it and be sure to carry enough water for the adventure.


No, the climb is not a short nor easy one for many to endure. Do pay attention to any health issues. At a few points, there are places to catch one’s breath. But, there are not many. This author did notice a few who may had been pushing it.

Finally, we were getting close to the summit, but not yet.


The arduous trek upward continued, but, without the determination on our parts, we struck forward with a vengeance. We would not be denied our resolve at summit success.

No way. Every time we thought we had made it, we were thwarted. Period. There was not way to see how far we had climbed the escarpment. But, we would soon have our answer.


Truly, there was not way to know our degree of advancement up this granite rock until we got there. No way.


So, we finally made it. And, with only a couple of stops along the way to catch our breaths, the view was incredible!

We took a long look around. It was majestic beauty in the finest! At this altitude one may not notice the air was thinner, but when moving around more than usual, especially climbing, one can tell the difference.


While at the summit, we had the opportunity to meet other visitors from other lands. Notably, we met two outstanding couples. One couple hailed from Israel and the other from Italy. We helped each other take pictures instead of resorting to selfies.

The hobnobbing and taking pictures of such scenic views of breathtaking terrain was really worth the trip. But, then there was the trip back down to the parking area. Rest assured, it was much easier than the ascent.


The trip back to the Sequoia National Park parking area was actually a welcome relief. It seemed like it took no time at all to return. But, it was still important to remember to be careful. One careless trip or misstep could be catastrophic.

Once back at the parking area we bad a farewell to our new international friends. They were on whirlwind trips to see as much of the United States as possible. Both couples were cramming as much in as possible. Example: One couple was heading from Sequoia National Park to Death Valley in the same day!


As mentioned previously, there was more haze about in the afternoon. Therefore, taking good pictures became problematic. However, this was an unusually clear day so please enjoy the following photos.

For those who are new traveling to the park, there are many vista points where one may stop.


For those who have some time after visiting Sequoia National Park, do take a few moments to stop at Kaweah Dam. It is one of the largest earthen dams in the United States.

This author hopes everyone has enjoyed reading this pictorial-based article. One will not regret visiting Sequoia National Park.

Written By: Ed Smith

UNIVERSAL DIGEST is pleased to be a conduit for our contributing authors. This article was produced being mostly unedited. We do not claim credit; we simply want to make it more available to the general public. The opinions of the authors are not necessarily the opinion or stance of this website.

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The Wherry Hotel is a cornerstone of history in Lowestoft, Suffolk, England. Travelers from around the world stay at this location, which is noted for its hospitality, amenities, and cuisine.


‘Wherry Hotel Excellence’ title I chose is quite apt for my lodging experience in Oulton Broad, Lowestoft, Suffolk, England. I have traveled much of my life in various careers and venues. Unequivocally, I must say this was one of the finest stays I have enjoyed, to date. Frankly, I was pretty much spoiled from staff and management. And, this was a good thing. I say this not only from experience, but for exactly for this time spent: I found the people I met here to be the most friendly, warm, caring, and honest of so many persons of whom I have ever met on any continent.

I booked reservations in November of 2018. Objectively, we were to see family and friends. Also, I had undertaken some investigative projects from over three years ago. Whereupon, I was hoping to complete them on this trip. I visited the Wherry in April, 2016. The service, friendliness, decor, and cuisine was fantastic. I stated that upon my next visit this is where I’d be unpacking the bags for my stay.

There are over 60 employees who attend to customer service with their various areas of expertise. Gladly, I met at least a third of them. I wanted to mention some names. However, the better part of valor and personal respect for privacy took precedence. Everyone, and I mean, everyone there were most gracious and accommodating.


The Wherry Hotel is and has been so well known as an historical icon in East Anglia. It is located in Oulton Broad, Lowestoft, Suffolk County. The locals visit this hotel for great food and commiseration. One of the most well known attractions is the Castle Carvery. It is reasonable in price and available for all to enjoy. From the breakfast session in the morning to the full service carvery buffet provided from early afternoon to late evening, this is a must visit. Not only will one enjoy the views, atmosphere, and great cuisine, when one leaves they will not be hungry. There will perhaps still be a little bulge in the wallet depending on how many beverages are consumed. History shows that the hotel was built around 1919.


In essence, what is stated from above hardly explains my visit’s experience. So, I have chosen to provide the ‘one picture is a thousand words’ approach. Be it known, the Wherry Hotel is a #1 ranked lodging location in East Anglia. The ambiance and varied, exquisite atmospheres are some of the finest I’ve seen, in my time.


I wanted to know a bit more about the history of this hotel and its relevancy of location. As mentioned, built around 1919, I found that there was a fire a while back and the hotel was pretty much rebuilt. There is one caveat to consider for those who may have disabilities. There is one elevator that transports guest to the three floors; however, the size of the wheelchair is to be considered. If it is motorized device, travel is limited many parts of the building.

Consequently, the Wherry Hotel gets its name from the Wherry Line. The railway line is from Lowestoft to Norwich. The railway station is an historic location. To state this briefly, traveling the rail system is easier to accomplish than to use auto traffic, in some cases. To alleviate traffic congestion, a new bridge is approved and will be built in the next few years. The boat traffic on the broads has to go through one drawbridge. When it is raised, traffic becomes congested. With the new bridge to allow auto and lorry traffic to travel, unabated, much congestion can be avoided.

Lowestoft’s railway system is one of the easternmost in England.


Oh my, what can I say? The suite where we stayed was surprisingly roomy and the view was so outstanding, it was almost surreal. Here is a few of the images taken from the balcony.


The weather was absolutely amazing. There were only two days where it was a bit inclement and that only lasted for short periods of time. The suite faced the broads to the west. There were some fantastic sunsets to see during the stay. I pulled a few of these from videos I made. Included in the videos was some sappy whistling from the first Star Wars movie. I chose not to share, sorry.


Notwithstanding, Lowestoft and Oulton Broad is a treasure trove of places to see and enjoy. One may take leisurely river cruises or visit local shops. Even taking the time to walk around town is pleasurable experience. Also, taking time to enjoy the ambiance and history is well worth the time.


As with any vacation, a time to leave must come. Visiting family and friends was outstanding! I had more personal involvement with many wonderful people than I had anticipated. It was difficult to leave. Inclusive, I had completed over three-and-one-half years of investigations and interviews for another project. That is another story. However, interacting with so many incredible persons who made my stay so memorable; all I can say is thank you. It is insufficient, but I must leave it at that.

In summation, with a tear in the eye, I had to say goodbye, for now. I left the Wherry Hotel and other friends with only love in my heart. As a famous actor once stated, ‘I’ll be baack!’

Until then, my friends, I do hope you have enjoyed this small saga of my travels. I found another ‘home’ and here is wishing each and every one the best of wishes.


Written By: Ed Smith

UNIVERSAL DIGEST is a conduit for our contributing authors and editors. We do not claim credit, we simply want to make it more available to the general public. UD provided minimal editing assistance, also.

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